Answer by Balaji Viswanathan:
Once again, it is a pretty decent budget. It does not contain anything extraordinary like Dhoni's helicopter shot or Dilshan's scoop. It is plain old Rahul Dravid's drive. Things were good enough that even the staunchest India critics – Guardian  and BBC [ were positive. While it would have been easier for the government to spend a lot in an election year [and get kudos from everyone], it has taken a prudent, miserly approach focused on long term health of the economy.The key theme this time has been boosting the rural economy with minor themes on clean environment and keeping spending prudent. At a time India is reeling through massive droughts, this cannot be better timed. We need rural India to modernize to grow quite fast. Besides economic reasons, there is also the political reality of elections in states with large rural areas [like UP].Here is a quick background on how India spends its money:Building rural India's infrastructureHere are some of the key projects for this:
- 100% rural electrification in 2 years.
- 100% usage of cooking gas in 3 years [replacing kerosene and wood].
- 100% FDI in food processing. More innovation and investments for processing will help increase the value of agriculture.
- Huge increase in irrigation expenses.
- 5 lakh farm ponds and 10 lakh compost pits.
- More loans to farmers and more spending on MGNREGA.
- 22% increase in infrastructure investment to build more roads and railways, most of which will be for rural areas. This will be the record year for amount of new roads added – 10,000 km of national highways and 50,000 km for upgrading existing roads. 2.2 lakh crores for this.
- Plenty of new investments in ports and new airports.Cleaner, Greener India
- Backing up what was mentioned in the Railway budget, the electrification budget of railways increased by 50%. That replaces the polluting Diesel.
- Taxes on coal and motor vehicles increased.
- Big push on organic farming [Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana] – 5 lakh acres to be brought under organic farming and a new project to add market value for organic produce on that launched in Northeast.
- 3000 more crores a year for nuclear power.
- 9000 crores for Swachh Bharat.
- Reduced paper usage with e-assessment and more spending on digital India.Fixing nation's health and mind
- The previous budgets had the problem of spending too less on health. Part of this is addressed this time, although a lot more is to be done. This year the spending on health and education increased to Rs. 1,51,581 crore.
- A "National Dialysis program" is launched.
- New health insurance of annual coverage about 1L and 1.3L for senior citizens.
- More spending on skill development and new navodyas. Other than that the education part of the spending is not spectacular.Balancing expenses with expectationsSince 2014, a key objective for Jaitley has been to cut India's deficit [how much we spend more than we borrow]. In the past, we have been recklessly spending and the people who lent us the money put India in the category of untrustworthy borrowers [credit rating in junk territory]. The huge spending also increased inflation and forced RBI to keep a high interest rate – thereby affecting entrepreneurs. It was a vicious circle.For the past 2 years, India's Finance Minister has been on a diet. The key here is to keep reducing the left chart [our expenses] while still growing the right chart [our growth]. This time, it is the lowest deficit in a long time. Sadly, no one is give you a party for dieting.Rebuilding the banks & fixing bankruptciesAs I mentioned in my other post  India is facing a major NPA crisis. The budget brings 25000 crores of government money to back the banks from going bankrupt. And there is a long due proposal to fix the bankruptcy law to help get the assets from the bankrupt borrowers much more easily.Bringing consistency to taxationOver the years, many governments have made their taxation extremely complicated with huge amount of inconsistencies. This budget has cleaned up some of these. For instance, EPF was completely exempt from taxation while NPS and other pension schemes were. Why this different handling? The budget now brings uniform taxation for all pension schemes.In the same way, the big inconsistency was providing more tax deduction for home loan interest, while the deduction for renters was very low. The deduction for renters has been increased bringing it more closer to home owners.Budget's 9 pillarsThe finance minister has outlined 9 pillars of interest and they are sound ones. While the corporations did expect more sops for them, in tough times we need something for everyone.Also see:<< Will be editing more as I analyze this more. So far, it is a "diet budget" – simple, prudent and non-extravagent>>